The syndrome of sarcopenia is manifested in the elderly and senile age in the form of progressive loss of muscle mass and decreased functionality of muscles. This process affects from 15% to 50% of people at risk (65 years and older). Against the backdrop of sarcopenia, serious diseases can develop, leading to a sharp decline in working capacity, hypo-mobility, dependence on external assistance and a general deterioration in the quality of life.
Also, sarcopenia is directly associated with the processes of premature aging observed in middle age. A person feels chronic fatigue, is not able to cope even with short-term physical exertion, the gait changes, increase casual falls and frequent traumatic situations, especially dangerous in the case of parallel development of osteoporosis.
Causes of the disease
The development of sarcopenia is influenced by the following factors:
- Poor nutrition. According to statistics, about 15% of people over 60 years of age consume only a quarter of the amount of protein needed to maintain the body’s effective work. As a consequence, the muscles do not receive enough of the substances required for the regeneration of muscle tissue.
- Imbalance of protein metabolism. Muscle tissue serves as the main proteinaceous depot of the human body, it accounts for the bulk of proteolysis, proteins are broken down in it, and the somatomedin-C growth factor is produced. Due to age-related changes, this mechanism is disrupted and catabolic processes begin to predominate in homeostasis.
- Endocrine profile. There is a direct relationship between the volume of muscle mass and the amount of hormones (testosterone, estrogen, somatomedin-C), the production of which decreases with age.
- Reduction of muscle hyperplasia. Into old age, the ability to restore muscle tissue is reduced, physical exertion does not lead to an increase in the volume and strength of the muscle fiber, but to microtrauma.
- Neurological factors. Muscle weakness and development of sarcopenia are also associated with functional denervation of muscle tissue.
Classification and diagnosis of sarcopenia
Common practice is the separation of primary and secondary sarcopenia. In the first case, degenerative processes are influenced solely by age factors, whereas in the second case, concomitant diseases and pathologies are also manifested. If the decrease in muscle mass is not accompanied by a decrease in muscle strength, it is a separate state – pre-sarcopenia.
The process of diagnosing a disease consists in measuring a number of control indicators:
- The total mass of skeletal muscles;
- Strength of muscles (dynamometry);
- Separate functional abilities (walking speed, climbing up and down the stairs).
Prevention and treatment of sarcopenia
There are no drug for the purposeful pharmaceutical treatment of the disease at the moment. Nevertheless, older people can take biologically active supplements that perform a protective function, in particular, dietary supplements containing vitamin D and increasing testosterone.
In most preventive and rehabilitative programs, the control of physical activity becomes a key point. If the physical condition allows, older people are recommended to give at least 2.5 hours a week aerobics exercises, gradually increasing the duration and intensity of the exercises.
The use of peptide complexes IPH
To effectively combat degenerative processes, it is necessary to eliminate the main reason mentioned at the beginning of the article – the intake of insufficient amounts of protein in the body. This task is carried out by correcting the nutritional status by adding to the diet food and supplements containing vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acid, leucine, valine.
An additional way to restore protein regulation is the use of peptide complexes. The greatest effect is achieved with the help of short peptides, which unlike polypeptides are more effectively absorbed by the body. Peptide-complexes IPH, getting into muscle tissue, perform a regulatory function, intensify the development of new cells, indirectly counteracting the development of sarcopenia.
Development of peptide complexes IPH based on short peptides is carried out by Ideal Pharma Peptide GmbH, specializing in innovative food and sports supplements. Peptide complexes IPH can be recommended for elderly people who decided to engage in exercise therapy and aerobics in order to reduce the possibility of developing sarcopenia. The innovative product activates the ability of muscle tissue to recover after physical exertion and improves the effectiveness of exercises.